A History of Homosexuality – Part 3

Homosexuality in East Asia

Homosexuality has been referred to since the earliest recorded history in East Asia. We’ll take a look at China, Japan, and Thailand.

China

The Chinese have a long history of homosexuality prominent not only in literature, but they have multiple terms for the practice thereof, each with a story of origin.

“Pleasures of the Bitten Peach” – this euphemism refers to the Duke Ling of Wei and his favorite, Mizi Xia. in the Zhen Dynasty around 500 BCE. They were out walking one afternoon. Xia saw a ripe peach hanging from a tree. He plucked it, took a bite, and finding the peach incredibly juicy and flavorful, offered it to the Duke, who was overcome by the action.

AiDong-360x309

“Passion of the Cut Sleeve” – During the Han Dynasty (260 BCE – 220 CE) Emperor Ai had a favorite, Dong Xian, who would often sleep with the Emperor. In one instance, Xian had fallen asleep on the sleeve of the Emperor’s robe. Rather than wake Xian up, the Emperor cut off the sleeve of the robe to get up.

Homosexuality was also prominent in Chinese literature. The Dream of the Red Chamber is one of China’s Four Great Classical Novels, and features homosexual situations. However, as with most civilizations, an intolerance towards homosexuality shows, during the Tang Dynasty (618 – 907) and with the rise of Christian and Islamic practices.

Japan

In Japanese culture, mentions of relationships among men date back thousands of years. It was often referred to as shudo or nanshoku – a strong bond between a seasoned and a novice samurai. The terms have been associated with pederasty, or a relationship between an adult male and an adolescent boy. These relationships were both consensual and  non-consensual. As with most cultures, the terms and ideas referred to behaviors more than sexual preference.

Japan is also the home of kabuki, a form of acting that started out with all female actors (1603 – 1629). The actors played both male and female roles, and often contained erotic content. The presiding shogun didn’t like the fact that the females 220px-Okuni_kabuki_byobu-zu_cropped_and_enhancedalso prostituted, and often times during the performances, the audience would begin to fight and riot over who would sleep with which actor. Women were subsequently banned from kabuki, and the shift went to cross-dressed young males, known as onnagata, and from 1629 to 1673, yero-kabuki was the norm. In this form of kabuki, adolescent males were used to play female roles, and those with effeminate qualities were preferred. However, these boys were also used as prostitutes, and as the skits still contained erotic material, rioting continued over who would sleep with who. Eventually, kabuki theater used older, all male actors, and these men still played female roles.

Feudal Japan also documents many instances of homosexual tendencies among samurais, 410px-Kitagawa_Utamarotheir charges, and prisoners. Some of these relationships were consensual as well.

Japanese art depicts many images of homosexual culture, and there were no direct laws prohibiting same-sex practices, but sodomy was punishable by law for a short time.

 

duel-jewel

As of late, a style known as ‘visual kei’ appeared in Japan. In the late 1980’s, men
and women would dress in flamboyant, androgynous clothing. The style is said to have originated in Japan’s form of ‘glam rock’ but has turned into an entire subculture, where the focus is more on a person’s traits, personality and abilities, as opposed to beauty and sexual appeal.

 

Thailand

Thailand may very well be the most accepting country in terms of history. Never in the history of the country has homosexuality or transgenderism been punishable by law. In fact, transgenderism has been openly accepted as a third gender.

Kathoey is a term that loosely translates to “ladyboys” and refers to transgender or effeminate gay males. It is a strong 220px-Kathoeysubculture and has been for ages. Kathoey work in typically female jobs, in salons, as dancers in bars, and restaurants. The term originally was reserved for intersexed males, not transgendered males. However, it now encompasses male to female transgenders as well.

The reason for such tolerance is often placed on the country’s practice of Buddhism, however the religion does not state anything specifically for or against homosexuality. It is the adoption of the ‘do unto others’ practice that shows such tolerance.

While same-sex relationships are tolerated and openly accepted by the people of Thailand, they are not officially recognized to receive the same benefits as opposite-sex couples.

 

 

The next installments will focus on Europe, starting with ancient Greece and Rome.

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2 thoughts on “A History of Homosexuality – Part 3

  1. Amanda March 4, 2014 / 5:06 pm

    I was just casually scrolling through the internet and accidentally stumbled on this article with a title “History of homosexuality” and which includes visual kei. How is visual kei in any way connected with homosexuality and why is it mentioned in the article? Of course there are homosexual musicians in the visual kei movement, but just because they wear radical clothes and look feminine, it doesn’t necessarily mean they’re homosexuals.

    Like

    • repowoman30 March 5, 2014 / 1:50 pm

      I understand that not all those who practice in visual kei are homosexual, but they are gender bending and mixing with gender identity and portrayal. The title of ‘History of homosexuality’ is a bit misleading for that particular post. I do apologize for that.

      Like

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